how to respond to climate change?

Develop a multilateral framework for avoiding dangerous climate change under the post-2012 Kyoto Protocol


Establish an agreed threshold for dangerous climate change at 2°C above preindustrial levels.


Set a stabilization target for atmospheric concentrations of CO2e at 450 ppm.


Agree to a global sustainable emissions pathway aimed at 50 percent reductions

of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 from 1990 levels.


Targets under the current Kyoto commitment period implemented by developed

countries, with a further agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050, with 20–30 percent cuts by 2020.


Major emitters in developing countries to aim at an emissions trajectory that peaks in 2020, with 20 percent cuts by 2050.


Put in place policies for sustainable carbon budgeting— the agenda for mitigation


Set a national carbon budget in all developed countries with targets for reducing

overall emissions from a 1990 reference year incorporated into national legislation.


Put a price on carbon through taxation or cap-and-trade programmes consistent with national carbon budget goals.


Carbon taxation to be introduced at a level of US $ 10–20/ t CO2 in 2010, rising in annual increments to US $ 60–100/ t CO2.


Adopt cap-and-trade programmes that aim at 20–30 percent cuts in CO2 emissions by 2020 with 90–100 percent of allowances auctioned by 2015.


Utilise revenues from carbon taxation and cap-and-trade to finance progressive tax

reform, with reductions in taxes on labour and investments, and the development of incentives for low-carbon technology.


Create an enabling environment for renewable energy through ‘feed-in’ tariffs and

market regulation, with a 20 percent target by 2020 in renewable power generation.


Increase energy efficiency through regulatory standards for appliances and buildings.


Reduce CO2 emissions from transport through stronger fuel efficiency standards in the European Union, with a target of 120g CO2/ km by 2012 and 80g CO2/ km

by 2020, and introduction of taxation of aviation.


Increase financing, incentives and regulatory support for the development of breakthrough technologies, with a focus on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS).


Strengthen the framework for international cooperation


Develop international cooperation to enhance access to modern energy services and reduce dependence on biomass, the primary source of energy for about 2.5 billion people.


Reduce the rate of increase in carbon emissions in developing countries through strengthened energy sector reforms, backed by finance and technology transfer.


Create a Climate Change Mitigation Facility (CCMF) to mobilize the US $ 25–50 billion needed annually to support low-carbon transitions in developing countries through a mix of grants, concessional aid and risk guarantees for investment under nationally-owned energy sector reform programmes.


Integrate project based carbon-financing through the Clean Development Mechanism and other Kyoto flexibility provisions into programme-based and sectoral national strategies for supporting low-carbon transition.


Develop international incentives for the conservation and sustainable management

of rainforests.


Extend carbon financing beyond industrial sector mitigation to land-use programmes— such as forest conservation and grasslands restoration—that offer benefits for the poor.


Put climate change adaptation at the centre of the post-2012 Kyoto framework and international partnerships for poverty reduction


Recognize that the world is committed to significant climate change, that even stringent mitigation will not materially affect temperature change until the mid-2030s,

and that average global temperatures will rise to 2050 even under a ‘good case’



Strengthen the capacity of developing countries to assess climate change risks and integrate adaptation into all aspects of national planning.


Act on G8 commitments to strengthen meteorological monitoring capacity in sub- Saharan Africa through partnerships under the Global Climate Observing System.


Empower and enable vulnerable people to adapt to climate change by building resilience through investments in social protection, health, education and other measures.


Integrate adaptation into poverty reduction strategies that address vulnerabilities linked to inequalities based on wealth, gender, location and other markers for disadvantage.


Provide at least US $ 86 billion in ‘new and additional’ finance for adaptation through transfers from rich to poor by 2016 to protect progress towards the MDGs and

prevent post-2015 reversals in human development.


Expand multilateral provisions for responding to climate-related humanitarian

emergencies and supporting post-disaster recovery to build future resilience, with US $ 2 billion in financing by 2016 under arrangements such as the UN’s Central

Emergency Response Fund and the World Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster Recution and Recovery.